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Types of World Agriculture

Apiculture: Maintenance of Honey bees on a commercial scale for the sale of honey

Floriculture: The cultivation of flowers or flowering plants

Horticulture: Growing of flowers and vegetables on small plots

Mariculture: Sea farming or cultivation of marine plants and animals for commercial

Olericulture: Cultivation of vegetables and kitchen herbs

Pisciculture: Breeding, rearing and transplantation of fish by artificially

Sericulture: Raising of silk worms for the production of raw silk

Viticulture: Cultivation of the vine for production of grapes and wine


  1. In present scenario and agricultural crisis in India and Asia we need to re-categories the agriculture. i. Fundamental agriculture: That needed for human survival, i.e. fruit, vegetable, grain, oil and seeds, cereals, essential spices, salt, and etc. Farmers of such products if prioritized, irrespective of size of farm land, would give more. This may be one of the solutions to retain them to Fundamental agriculture: Ø Incentive based on the production per M2 or bighas or acre so more produced would get more. Small farmers can earn more by organic quality products. Quality and quantity both be taken into account as quality producers would give lesser yield. Ø Labour cost all over the world has increased discouraging farmers. Most farmers end up in losses. So Incentive per Kg or tonne sold should cover cost and the profit. This is one of the ways to improve rural employment opportunity and living standard of agricultural workers, without upsetting farmers. ii. Commercial Agriculture: We can divide this to two categories: Ø Commercial agriculture but essential for human survival – Such agriculture is essential for human and are basic needs. These may be milk, fishery, poultry, bio fertilizer, organic products and so on. Over 60% of Indian farmers are with small lands unable to grow sufficient for market and self. Many states of India with rising urbanization are neglecting these sectors. Blame goes to educational system that helps urbanization. Small farmers with very less land need encouragement and training to set up alternative sources of agriculture such as poultry, fishery etc., in order to promote production to accommodate shortfall and rising prices. Allowances and interest free loans, to promote produce and their living standard. Direct marketing facilities without multiple mediators. Ø 2nd category is agriculture with commercial intention: Rubber, spices, and wood of commercial usage, flowers and ornamental ingredients, dry fruits, spirits, chemicals, medicinal and cosmetic usage, bio fuel and etc.


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